Marc Aurel Stein
The first Western expedition to reach Dunhuang, led by a Hungarian count, arrived in 1879. More than twenty years later one of its members, Lajos Lóczy, drew the attention of the Hungarian-born Marc Aurel Stein (1862-1943), by then a well-known British archaeologist and explorer, to the importance of the caves. Stein reached Dunhuang and Mogao in 1907 during his second expedition to Central Asia. By this time, he had heard rumours of the walled-in cave and its contents.
After delicate negotiations with Wang Yuanlu, Stein negotiated
access to the cave. 'Heaped up in layers,' Stein wrote, 'but
without any order, there appeared in the dim light of the priest's
little lamp a solid mass of manuscript bundles rising to a height
of nearly ten feet.... Not in the driest soil could relics of a
ruined site have so completely escaped injury as they had here in a
carefully selected rock chamber, where, hidden behind a brick wall,
.... these masses of manuscripts had lain undisturbed for
(M. Aurel Stein, Ruins of Desert Cathay (1912; reprint, New York, Dover, 1987).
The abbot eventually sold Stein seven thousand complete manuscripts and six thousand fragments, as well as several cases loaded with paintings, embroideries and other artefacts; the money was used to fund restoration work at the caves.
The manuscripts are now in the British Library and the paintings have been divided between the National Museum in New Delhi and the British Museum, where over three hundred paintings on silk, hemp and paper are kept.