Bark shield

Face of shield

  • Back of shield

    Back of shield

 

On display

Australian bark shield

Australia, before AD 1770

Australian bark shield

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This extremely rare shield was made in the eighteenth century, and is thought to have belonged to the Gweagal (‘Fire’) clan, who lived on the southern shore of Botany Bay, near present day Sydney.


Cut from the bark of a red mangrove tree, it belongs to the category of shield known as elemong.  It is one of only three elemong surviving in museum collections, and is the only Australian object in the British Museum collected on the voyages of Captain James Cook.

Between April 28 and May 6 1770, the Endeavour visited a large bay, which was named Botany Bay by Cook, owing to the many specimens taken in this area by the voyage botanist, Joseph Banks. When the crew tried to land, they were challenged by two men, one of whom fetched a shield for protection after being shot at by Cook.

Shields were used as defensive weapons in conflict situations, and this example has a ragged hole near the centre, which is thought to be damage caused by a spear. The hole is a unique feature, and enabled the shield to be identified as the one described in the following voyage journal entry, by Banks:

‘Defensive weapons we saw only in Sting-Rays [Botany] bay and there only a single instance – a man who attempted to oppose our Landing came down to the Beach with a shield of an oblong shape about 3 feet long 1 and a half broad made of the bark of a tree; this he left behind when he ran away and we found upon taking it up that it plainly had been piercd through with a single pointed lance near the center.’

There is also a sketch by John Frederick Miller dated 1771, after the sketch by Sydney Parkinson, the Endeavour's official artist, which depicts a shield with a hole in it, just like this one.

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Object details

From Botany Bay, New South Wales

Length: 97 cm
Width: 29 cm

 

AOA Q78.Oc.839

Enlightenment: Trade-Discovery

     

    Collected on the first voyage of
    Captain James Cook (1768-71)

    References

    J.C. Beaglehole (ed.), The Journals of Captain Cook: The Voyage of the Endeavour, 1768-1771. Cambridge : For the Hakluyt Society at the University Press, 1955 (entry for April 29th, 1770).

    J.C. Beaglehole (ed.), The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks, 1768-1771, Volume II. Sydney, London : Angus & Robertson, 1963 (from page 54, from page 133).

    S. Parkinson, A journal of a voyage to the South Seas, in his Majesty's ship, the Endeavour (London: Richardson and Urquhart, 1773) (from p.134)

    See this object in our Collection database online

    Selected pictorial references

    John Frederick Miller, 1771, …shield, fish spear and javelins from New Holland… British Library, Add. 23920, f.35

    Sydney Parkinson, 1770, Two Aborigines and Canoes, British Library, Add. 9345, f.14v

    Thomas Chambers, 1773, Two of the Natives of New Holland, Advancing to Combat, Plate XXVII, in Sydney Parkinson, 1773, A Journal of the Voyage to the South Seas.  London: Stanfield Parkinson.

    Tupaia, priest and navigator from Ra’iatea, 1770, Aborigines in two canoes, British Library, Add. Ms. 15508 F.10 (9)

    Further reading

    M. Nugent, Cook Was Here (Cambridge, 2009)

    J. Flood, The Original Australians  (Crows Nest, 2004)

    S. Banner, ‘Why Terra Nullius? Anthropology and Property Law in Early Australia’, Law and History Review, 23 (2005), 95–131

    C.H. Herdendorf, ‘Captain James Cook and the Transits of Mercury and Venus’, Journal of Pacific History, 21 (1086), 39–55

    W.R. Jacobs, ‘The Fatal Confrontation: Early Native-white Relations on the Frontiers of Australia, New Guinea and the Americas: a Comparative Study’, Pacific Historical Review, 40 (1971), 283–309

    P. Turner Strong, ‘Fathoming the Primitive: Australian Aborigines in Four Explorers’ Journals, 1597-1845’, Ethnohistory, 33 (1986), 175–194