Red granite block of Khufu (Cheops)

From Bubastis, Egypt
4th Dynasty, around 2500 BC

The owner of the Great Pyramid at Giza

This block, and another bearing the name of Khafre, one of Khufu's successors, was found in the first court of the Temple of Bubastis, not far from the entrance. Both had obviously been reused, leaving us no idea of the earlier structure. It is rare to find stone structures of Fourth Dynasty kings away from their pyramids, and these blocks are very important evidence for the use of stone in early temples. It is assumed that many early temples were still largely made from mud brick at this time, in the Old Kingdom (about 2613-2160 BC).

The block bears the so-called 'Horus name' of Khufu. Kings conventionally bore five different names, each of which defines a different part of their personality as king. The Horus name is probably the oldest of these names, as it is the standard form used in royal inscriptions of the First Dynasty (about 3100-2890 BC). It stresses the association of the living king with the god Horus, the son and successor of Osiris.

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E. Naville, Bubastis (London, Egypt Exploration Fund, 1891)


Length: 91.500 cm
Width: 53.300 cm

Museum number

EA 1097


Gift of the Egypt Exploration Society


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