Second Dynasty of Isin
The power of the last rulers of the Kassite Dynasty in Babylonia was weakened by decades of conflict with Assyria to the north and Elam to the west. In 1157 BC royal power was claimed by a new dynasty based at the city of Isin.
The most successful of the Isin kings appears to have been Nebuchadnezzar I (1125-1104 BC), following the evidence in inscriptions on kudurrus. During his reign Nebuchadnezzar waged war with Elam. A number of poetic texts and later epics survive that describe how the statue of the god Marduk, captured by an invading Elamite army, was found by Nebuchadnezzar in the city of Susa and restored to the main temple in Babylon. He was thus believed to have received Marduk's blessing. However, towards the end of his reign, Aramaean tribal groups, which lived outside the Babylonian cities but were attracted by their wealth, began to launch raids. This caused major difficulties for Nebuchadnezzar's seven dynastic successors, and Babylonia entered a period of serious crisis. The kings were unable to maintain control of the country and the dynasty came to an end.