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The image of the Roman Emperor
The cult of the Emperor combined religious and political
elements and was a vital factor in Roman military and civil
administration. Deceased rulers were often deified, and though the
living Emperor, who was the state's chief priest, was not himself
worshipped as a god, his 'numen', the spirit of his power and
The image of the ruler and information about his achievements was spread primarily through coinage. In addition, statues and busts, in stone and bronze and occasionally even precious metal, were placed in a variety of official and public settings. They varied in size: colossal, life-size and smaller. Such images symbolised the power of the state and the essential unity of the Empire.
As well as the political importance of representations of the Emperor, his physical appearance and that of his consort and family were familiar to people throughout the Empire. This influenced fashion and such representations can assist the modern archaeologist and art-historian. For example, beards became fashionable after the accession of Hadrian, and the hairstyles of Empresses and other Imperial women may be seen in private portraiture and decorative art, even in remote provinces such as Britain.