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Tiglath-Pileser III, king of Assyria (744-727 BC)

Tiglath-pileser III (Tukulti-apil-Esharra, 'my trust is the son of Esharra') came to the throne of Assyria in 745 BC following a revolt that may have been prompted by the threat of invasion from the north. It is unclear whether he was a member of the royal family, but his actual name was probably Pul when he adopted the throne name of Tukulti-apil-Esharra. This means, 'my support is the son of the god Esharra' and has been simplified by modern scholars to Tiglath-pileser.

The new king extended Assyrian control over much of Syria and, around 736 BC, he invaded Urartu, a powerful and expanding state to the north, leading his army into the heart of the enemy's capital on Lake Van.

The reorganisation of the administration in the region led to the growth of a true Assyrian empire with previously independent states like Damascus, which fell to Assyria in 732 BC, now ruled directly from Kalhu through governors. To the south of Assyria, the kingdom of Babylonia was also now ruled by Tiglath-pileser who had invaded in 729 BC on the pretext of maintaining peace in the region. Tigalth-pileser died in 727 BC and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser V.