The 1930s cleaning of the Parthenon Sculptures in the British Museum

Ian Jenkins

Notes

  1. Jenkins 1992, 225-28.
  2. Jenkins 1999, 43-5.
  3. Nick Fielding, The Mail on Sunday, trailing St Clair EM3.
  4. Srapbook in Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  5. See below, page 00.
  6. Jenkins 1988.
  7. LEM3, 289.
  8. LEM3, 299.
  9. LEM3, 281.
  10. LEM3, 289. For the painting see Jenkins 1992, 38 and 76, fig. 9 with colour plate II.
  11. LEM3, 289.
  12. For a colour reproduction of Leighton's portrait see . . .
  13. St Clair 1999, 418.
  14. See below pages 00-00 and Appendix 11.
  15. Appendix 11.
  16. LEM3 308.
  17. LEM3 310.
  18. LEM3 312.
  19. The fortuna of these and other sculptures of the Museum is told in Jenkins 1992, passim.
  20. Smith 1916, 297-8.
  21. Jenkins 1992, 81-90.
  22. Jenkins 1992, 90-101; 221-29.
  23. Jenkins 1992, 223, fig. 84.
  24. Jenkins 1992, 226 and 1994, 205.
  25. Jenkins 1992, 225-26.
  26. The text which follows in this section was first published as Jenkins 1999.
  27. LEM3 147-50.
  28. O.P XXXXIII 5, July 1845, letter from J. Henning to J. Forshall, Museum Secretary.
  29. For Nollekens, see Smith1828 passim.
  30. O.P. XXXII, 6 January 1845, letter to W. R. Hamilton.
  31. Jenkins 1990, 202.
  32. Jenkins 1990, 104-105. Note that in his attack on the Museum's stewardship, EM3 286, St Clair falsely reports my own research to claim that the Museum made moulds from the original culptures c. 1901-1912.
  33. C.3301, 11 December 1830.
  34. C.6624, 8 March 1845.
  35. O.P.XLVI, May 1851.
  36. O.P. LVI, 26 March 1857; Report of the Select Committee on the Site of the National Gallery, Parliamentary Papers 1857, session 2, XXIV.
  37. O.P. LVI, 30 April 1857; Sub-Committee on Antiquities 15 May 1857.
  38. Sub-Committee on Antiquities 19 June 1857; Westmacott, letter 8 January 1857; Hawkins, 17 June 1857; Faraday, 13 June 1857.
  39. Jenkins 1992, passim.
  40. C.9373, 27 March 1858.
  41. Jenkins 1992, 86-88.
  42. Jenkins 1992 48-55.
  43. C. 9421, 26 June 1858; O.P. LX, 25 June 1858.
  44. O.R. LXII, 6 January 1859.
  45. O.R. 9 October 1867.
  46. O.R. 25 June 1868.
  47. O.R. 8 October 1873.
  48. C.12848, 8 November 1873; Jenkins 1992, 98-99, fig. 31.
  49. O.R. April - December 1902.
  50. O.R. July 1871; June 1926.
  51. O.R. 23 January 1933.
  52. Crawford 1984, 8 May 1931, 537.
  53. South Metope XXXI and South Frieze XIII - in both Michaelis and Jenkins numbering.
  54. O.R. April 1932.
  55. O.R. 23 January 1933.
  56. See below, page 00.
  57. O. R. for these years.
  58. O.R. February 1934.
  59. O. R. These were NXXXI, XXXIII, XXXVII-XLVII which at the time were numbered in the Museum as N26, 28, 32-42.
  60. C. 5488.
  61. Appendix 1 with Forsdyke's letter to Pryce.
  62. Appendix 2.
  63. Appendix 3 and 4.
  64. Later Lincoln Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Oxford.
  65. Appendix 5.
  66. Appendix 4.
  67. For Pinker, see Jenkins 1992, 192.
  68. Appendix 6.
  69. Appendix 7.
  70. British Museum Archives Letter Books: Departments in Particular, May 1932 - July 1941.
  71. Jenkins 1994, 203.
  72. Appendix 8.
  73. Appendix 9 arranged chronologically.
  74. Cf. Hinks 1984, 60, where in his diary entry for 29 December 1939 the writer was later told that Harlech had spoken up for him.
  75. Undated letter marked 'Sunday'.
  76. Dated 28 October 1937.
  77. Appendix 10. Letters are arranged chronologically.
  78. Appendix 11, arranged chronologically.
  79. The Telegraph, 19March 1939.
  80. Appendix 10, letter to Sir Alexander Miers, 12 May 1939.
  81. Byron English Bards and, Scotch Reviewers (1809), lines 1027-30.
  82. Appendix 11.
  83. Appendix 10, letter dated 18 May 1939.
  84. Appendix 11.
  85. Appendix 11.
  86. Epstein's letters on the Elgin Marbles are reprinted in Epstein 1942, 181-88.
  87. Appendix 10.
  88. Notices given on 16 May 1939, reported in the Evening Standard, 17 May 1939.
  89. For other Parliamentary interest in the affair, see LEM3 302.
  90. Jenkins 1994, 203-209.
  91. Letter to The Times, 9 September 1948.
  92. Jenkins 1994, 207.
  93. Evening Standard and Evening News, 25 November 1949
  94. 5 September 1949.
  95. 6 September 1949.
  96. Undated cutting in the scrapbooks in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  97. 'The cleaning of pictures in relation to patina, varnish and glazes', The Burlington Magazine XCI, July 1949, and see also XCII, October 1950.
  98. Brandi 1950.
  99. Blocks V to VIII in both Michaelis and Jenkins numbering.
  100. Brandi 1951 and 1953.
  101. M. Beard, 'Plunder Blunder', The Times Literary Supplement, 12 June 1998, 5-6.
  102. Rudenstine 1999, 370-371.
  103. Some of these errors and misrepresentations were corrected in I. Jenkins, 'Dirty Play in a Game of Marbles', The Times, 11 June 1998, and in Jenkins 2000, 9-15.
  104. St Clair 1999.
  105. The statement follows - see Appendix 11.
  106. M.Yiannis Tzedakis, Director of Antiquities, Greek Ministry of Culture and Science at the ICOM General Assembly, 2 August 1993, described the cleaning as a 'disaster'.
  107. Daily Telegraph, 1 May 1939: His selection by the trustees in 1936 met with some criticism owing to his lack of administrative experience. At that time he had only been Keeper of a Department for four years. It was, however, considered that the new Elgin Room was the largest problem facing the Museum and the Trustees are said to have taken the view that it would be wise to appoint someone whose expert knowledge was particularly connected with Greek antiquities.' See also Hood 1998, 30;
  108. R.D. Barnett Appendix 5.
  109. Goldsmith in Hinks 1984 ??
  110. LEM3, 297.
  111. LEM3, 295.
  112. Manuscripts in British Museum Department of Scientific Research Archives.
  113. Frantz 1954, 244-48; Thompson 1954, 65-66; Daley 2000, 57-59. See also Harrison1988, 339-349. The frieze was cleaned again in 1974, when the colour traces observed in the 1953 Agora notebook had disappeared: Harrison 19888, 340 and Dörig 1985, xi
  114. Letter dated 4 November 1953.
  115. Hendy 1947, xiii and xix.
  116. Hendy 1947, xii-xx.
  117. Hendy 1947, xviii.
  118. Hitchens, 1987, 92-93.
  119. Palagia, 1993, 43.
  120. Galanou and Dogani 1994, 1-13.
  121. Jenkins 1990, 111-114; Galanou and Dogani 1994, 13
  122. Mantis's paper will be published elsewhere.
  123. St Clair 1999, 435.
  124. LEM3 311. The suggested loss of tool marks is refuted by Boardman 2000,249, pl.5.
  125. Hughes 1993; Craddock and Giumlia-Mair 1993.
  126. Jenkins 1988.
  127. See above 00.
  128. Haynes 1975, 131.
  129. See above 00.
  130. Jenkins 1995, 149.
  131. See above 00.
  132. Jenkins 1994 a, 78.
  133. Casson 1921,104 no 855 for the 'before' image and Brouskari 1974, 140, fig. 272, for the 'after'. Boissonnas plate 127 shows a cast of the Iris head incorporated with the remainder of the block preserved in the British Museum and a detail of the still heavily coated original head in Athens still attached to a cast of the British Museum's sculpture.
  134. Boardman
  135. Hendy 1947, vi-vii.
  136. British Museum Department of Scientific Research archives, letter dated 4 November 1953.
  137. LEM3 336.
  138. The Times, 5 November 1999.