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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Mark McDonald

Assistant Keeper
Old Master Prints and Spanish Drawings Department: Prints and Drawings


Mark McDonald’s principal area of interest is Old Master prints from the fifteenth- through the eighteenth century with special interest in the Renaissance period. He has published widely and taught on this subject as well as on collecting and Spanish drawings. Within the department, Mark is the curator responsible for overseeing the Print Room. Before joining the British Museum he worked at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles.


+44 (0)20 7323 8054

Current projects

  • Research on prints and drawings made in Spain from the Renaissance to Goya

  • Publishing the print collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-1657)

Previous projects

  • Reconstructing the print collection of Ferdinand Columbus (1488-1539) the son of Christopher Columbus.

External fellowships/ honorary positions/ membership of professional bodies

  • Research Associate of the Courtauld Institute, London.

  • Honorary Fellow of University College, London University.

  • Honorary Fellow of the University of Melbourne.

  • Co-founder with Patricia Rubin of the Graphic Arts Group (GAG) 2005-

  • Advisor and contributor to the Getty/USC Mencia Mendoza Project.

  • Guest teaching on Courtauld Institute Renaissance arts course.

  • Committee Member of ARTES, society of art historians, artists etc with hispanic interests.

Recent publications

Edited by M. McDonald Revolution on Paper: Mexican Prints 1910-1960, British Museum Press, London, 2009.

M. McDonald, ‘A newly discovered print by Giulio Bonasone’ The Burlington Magazine, 2007, vol.clxix, pp.779-81.

M. McDonald, 'The Lost Print Collection of Ferdinand Columbus (1488-1539)', in J. Fellows, E. Block and M.H. Jones, Profane Images in the Marginal Arts of the Middle Ages (Brepols, 2007)

M. McDonald, ‘A Genealogy for the Count Duke of Olivares', Print Quarterly, xxiii 2006, pp.359-82

M. McDonald, 'A Presentation Drawing by Antonio Villanueva', Burlington Magazine, cxlviii 2006, pp.192-94

M. McDonald, La colección de estampas de Hernando Colón (1488-1539): Colecciónismo en la era del Descubrimiento: Fundación 'La Caixa', Madrid 10 June – 25 July, Seville 4 October – 15 December 2004 (British Museum with English catalogue as Ferdinand Columbus: Renaissance Collector, 9 February – 5 June 2005)