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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Judith Swaddling

Head of Italian collections
The Etruscans and the rest of pre-Roman Italy, the ancient Olympic Games, metalworking techniques
Ancient Greece

Department: Greece and Rome


+44 (0)20 7323 8571


Judith Swaddling is head of the Italian collections in the Department and curator of the Etruscan and other antiquities from pre- Roman Italy. She organized the exhibition on The Etruscan World (Room 71), and has held various Etruscan conferences and study days. Her publications in this area are listed below.

Judith has a long association with the ancient Olympic Games, having organized a series of exhibitions on the subject, and the latest version of her book, The Ancient Olympic Games, was published in 2008 (British Museum Press).

Her PhD thesis was about bronze statuary production in ancient Greece.

Current projects

Etruscan by Definition
Editing of and contributing to Etruscan by Definition, Papers in Honour of Sybille Haynes, a series of papers on aspects of the Etruscans from the conference held at the British Museum in December 2007.

Etruscan mirrors
Compiling the next volume of the British Museum’s catalogue of Etruscan mirrors (Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum).

Previous projects</32>

The Seianti project: leading with Professor John Prag of Manchester University an international team of scholars investigating the sarcophagus and skeletal remains of an Etruscan woman in the British Museum

Various projects on the ancient Olympic Games, as above

External fellowships/ honorary positions/ membership of professional bodies

Corresponding Member of the Istituto di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Florence

Member of the International Scientific Committee for the Corpus of Etruscan Mirrors

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London

Trustee of the Sybille Haynes Fund for Etruscan and Early Italic Studies

Recent publications

J. Swaddling with P. Perkins (eds), Etruscan by definition. Papers in honour of Sybille Haynes. British Museum Research Publication 173 (London, British Museum Press, 2009).

J. Swaddling, ‘Shake, rattle and rôle. Sistrums in Etruria?’ (with a scientific report by Janet Ambers et al.), in Swaddling and Perkins 2009, 31–47.

J. Swaddling, The Ancient Olympic Games, 3rd edition, (British Museum Press, 2008) (Also joint imprint with Texas University Press, 2008, and published in Chinese, German, Greek, Korean, Japanese, Polish, Turkish.).

J. Swaddling with L. Bonfante, Etruscan Myths, (London, British Museum Press and Texas University Press, 2006). (Also published in Czech and Spanish.).

J. Swaddling with P. Perkins (eds), in Papers from the Etruscans Now conference held at the British Museum December 2002, published as Etruscan Studies (Journal of the Etruscan Foundation) vol. 9, 2006 and vol. 10, 2007).

J. Swaddling with J. Prag (eds), Seianti Hanunia Tlesnasa: the Story of an Etruscan Noblewoman. British Museum Research Paper 100. (London, British Museum Press, 2002).

J. Swaddling, 'A catalogue of Etruscan mirrors in the British Museum', Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum, Gt. Britain 1, I (London, British Museum Press, 2001).