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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Pauline Burger


+44 (0)20 7323 8753


Pauline completed a PhD in Organic Geochemistry at the Laboratory of Molecular Biogeochemistry, France in 2008, focused on the characterisation of amorphous natural organic materials. She then undertook a post-doctoral CNRS ANR Fellowship at the Centre for Bio-Archaeology and Ecology, France, in palaeoethnobotany.

She joined the Museum in 2010 as a Marie Curie Intra-European post-doctoral Fellow and is undertaking the chemical investigation of tars and pitches found on objects in the collections of the Museum and from a number of medieval shipwrecks including the fifteenth century clinker-built Newport ship. The scientific techniques she uses include GC/MS and FTIR.

Current projects

AMPT - Ancient Maritime Pitch and Tar: a multi-disciplinary study of sources, technology and preservation
Ancient Maritime Pitch and Tar research project

External fellowships/ honorary positions/ membership of professional bodies

Marie Curie Fellow

Recent Publications

P. Burger, A. Charrié-Duhaut, J. Connan and P. Albrecht, 'Taxonomic characterisation of fresh Dipterocarpaceae resins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): providing clues for identification of unknown archaeological resins', Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 3(2) (2011), pp.185-200.

P. Burger, A. Charrié-Duhaut, J. Connan, M. Flecker and P. Albrecht, 'The 9th-Century-AD Belitung Wreck, Indonesia: analysis of a resin lump', International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 39(2) (2010), pp. 383-386.

P. Burger, A. Charrié-Duhaut, J. Connan, M. Flecker and P. Albrecht, 'Archaeological resinous samples from Asian wrecks: taxonomic characterization by GC-MS', Analytica Chimica Acta 648(1) (2009), pp. 85-97.