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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site

 

Margaret Sax

 

Contact

+44 (0)20 7323 8268
science@thebritishmuseum.ac.uk

Margaret’s research into the characteristics of tool marks preserved on hard stone artefacts allowed her to develop a methodology, based on optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for the identification of ancient carving methods. Her specialization arose from a project to identify the materials of more than two thousand near Eastern cylinder seals (about 3500-400 BC), which led to an investigation of the tools and techniques used to engrave the hardest, quartz seals.

The study resulted in a radical reassessment of the date for the introduction of the jeweller’s wheel in Mesopotamia. The methodology has since been applied to the carving of nephrite jade in China, a tradition spanning seven millennia.

In 2006, Margaret was invited to study a selection of the jades excavated at the Jin Marquis cemetery, Shanxi province, China.

In collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, she is also working on the lapidary technology of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.

Current projects

  • The origins of purportedly pre-Columbian Mexican crystal skulls
  • Investigation of the methods used to carve jade and other hard stones in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
  • Investigation of the methods used to carve jades excavated at the Jin Marquis cemetery, Shanxi province, China

Previous projects

  • Identification of carving techniques on Chinese jade
  • Identification of engraving techniques on quartz cylinder seals from Mesopotamia, about 3000-400 BC
  • Identification of the materials of cylinder seals from Mesopotamia, about 3500-400 BC

Recent publications

M. Sax, J.M. Walsh, I.C. Freestone, A.H. Rankin, N.D. Meeks, 'The origins of two large purportedly pre-Columbian Mexican crystal skulls', Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(10), (2008), pp. 2751-2760

M. Sax, J. Ambers, N.D. Meeks, S. Canby, 'The emperor's terrapin', British Museum Technical Research Bulletin. 1, (2007), pp. 35-41

M. Sax, N. D. Meeks, J. Ambers, C. Michaelson, ‘The introduction of rotary incising wheels for working jade in China’, P. Jett, (ed.) Scientific Research on the Sculptural Arts of Asia, Proceedings of the Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC, (2005)

M. Sax, N. D. Meeks, C. Michaelson, A. P. Middleton, ‘The identification of carving techniques on Chinese jade’, Journal of Archaeological Science, 31 (2004), pp. 1413-1428

M. Sax, N. D. Meeks, D. Collon, ‘The introduction of the lapidary engraving wheel in Mesopotamia’, Antiquity, 74(284), (2000), pp. 380-387

M. Sax, ‘The seal materials, their chronology and sources’, in D. Colon, Catalogue of the Western Asiatic Seals in the British Museum, Cylinder seals V, Neo- Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Periods, (London, The British Museum Press, 2001), pp. 18-34

M. Sax, J. McNabb, N. D. Meeks, ‘Methods of engraving Mesopotamian cylinder seals: experimental confirmation’, Archaeometry, 40 (1998), pp. 1-21