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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Andrew Meek


+44 (0)20 7323 8275

Andrew works on vitreous materials which include glasses, enamels and glazed artefacts. He provides specialist scientific information on these artefacts to conservators and curators.

In the British Museum Research Laboratory he mainly uses scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray fluorescence to identify the composition of vitreous artefacts. This information is used for the preparation of exhibitions, catalogues and excavation reports, and allows a greater understanding of the Museum collections. It is also used by glass and ceramics conservators striving to prevent the deterioration of certain object types.

Andrew studied archaeology, specialising in scientific analysis, at the University of Nottingham where he graduated with an MSc and PhD in Archaeology. The title of his doctoral thesis was ‘The chemical and isotopic analysis of English forest glass’. Discovering the provenance of glass objects using isotopic analysis remains one of his main fields of interest.

He is a board member of the Association for the History of Glass and co-editor of their biannual publication Glass News.

Current projects

Glass vessels and beads from the Ringlemere Anglo-Saxon cemetery

PIXE analysis of Abbasid and Fatimid lustreware ceramics

The production of gold glass in Late Antiquity: scientific analysis of the British Museum collection

The scientific analysis of glass from the Staffordshire Hoard

The provenance of Late Medieval and Early Modern glass artefacts produced in the UK

Developing strategies for the correct storage and cleaning of deteriorating glass artefacts

Recent publications

Meek, A., Hood, J. and Warren, J. (forthcoming 2013). ‘Reassertion of a Renaissance jewel? The investigation and interpretation of two enamelled panels from the Wallace Collection’ In: D. Saunders, M. Spring and A. Meek (eds) The Renaissance Workshop: The Materials and Techniques of Renaissance Art. Archetype publications in association with the British Museum, London.

Saunders, D., Spring, M. and Meek, A. (eds) (forthcoming 2013). The Renaissance Workshop: The Materials and Techniques of Renaissance Art. Archetype publications in association with the British Museum, London.

Meek, A. (forthcoming 2013) ‘Gold Glass in Late Antiquity: scientific analysis of the British Museum collection.’ In (ed.) Entwistle, C. New Light on Old Glass Conference Proceedings.

Spataro, M., Meeks, N., Meek, A. and Shapland, A. (forthcoming 2012) ‘Scientific investigation of faience fragments attributed to the town mosaic at Knossos.’ Archaeometry, DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2012.00721.x

Swift, R., Meek, A., Rode, N. and Komlosy, A. (2012). ‘A radioactive beaded apron with glass disease: conservation, analysis and recommendations’ British Museum Technical Research Bulletin, 6.

Meeks, N., Cartwright, C., Meek, A. and Mongiatti, A. (eds). 2012. Historical Technology, Materials and Conservation: SEM and Microanalysis. Archetype Publications in association with the British Museum.

Meek, A., Henderson, J. and Evans, J.A. 2012. ‘North-western European Forest Glass: Working towards an independent means of provenance’. In: D. Iganatiadou and A. Antonaras (eds) Proceedings of the 18th Congress of Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre. Thessaloniki: AIHV pp. 437-441.

Meek, A., Henderson, J. and Evans, J. 2012. ‘Isotope analysis of English forest glass from the Weald and Staffordshire’ Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27, pp. 786-795.

Meek, A. 2011. ‘VP-SEM-EDX Analysis of the Glass Eyes’ In: V. Score (ed.), Hoards, Hounds and Helmet: A conquest-period ritual site at Hallaton, Leicestershire, Leicester: University of Leicester Archaeological services: pp. 99-100.

Meek, A., Henderson, J. and Evans, J.A. 2011. ‘North-western European Forest Glass’ Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 13th-16th May 2008, Siena, Italy, pp. 105-111.

Smirniou, M., Verri, G., Roberts, P., Meek, A. and Spataro, M. 2010. ‘An Opus Vermiculatum Panel of the Greek and Roman Collection: A New Perspective on the Methods of Construction’ British Museum Technical Research Bulletin, 4, pp. 67-78.